• Definition Of permanent Stitches
  • process of basic stiches


At the end of this discussion in this unit, children should be able to know:

  1. Definition Of permanent Stitches
  2. process of basic stiches


  • Whiteboard/Chalkboard
  • Explanatory posters/pictures
  • Explanatory videos
  • High quality Needle
  • Thread
  • Scissor
  • Straight pin
  • Tailors chalk
  • Ruler
  • Marking pencil
  • clothes


  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Demonstration
  • Questions and answers


  • NERDC Basic Education Curriculum.
  • Universal Basic Education  Curriculum (UBE)
  • Lagos State Home Economic Scheme of Work.
  • Online Materials.
  • Home Economics for Primary Schools.



They are used to join two pieces of material together permanently.  These stitches are made permanent on the cloth and need not be removed later. Examples of permanent stitches are:

  • Running Stitches
  • Back Stitches
  • Run and back stitch
  • Heming Stitches
  • Decorative Stitches
  • Whipping stitch

1 Running Stitch:

 It is the form of hand stitch which is used for permanent sewing stitched using same color thread. Handmade seams, darning, gathering and finishing edges can be done with this running stitch. The stitches are much smaller, straight, fine and evenly spaced. It is very easy and fast.

2. Back stitch:

 Stitching is done on the right side of the fabric. Stitches should be about 1/8′ long on the Back Stitch right side. To make the back stitch, push needle up through the material at a point on the stitching line about 1/8′ from its right end. Take a stitch inserting the needle 1/8′ back of the thread at the beginning of the stitching line and bringing it out an equal distance in the front of the thread. Repeat this way, keeping stitches uniform in size and fairly firm. It takes much time and require carefulness.

3. Run and back or Combination stitch:

 This is used whose back stitch is not compulsory. A back stitch and two running stitches are combined and used for working plain seam is done by hand. This stitch is faster than back stitch and stronger than the running stitch

4. Hemming stitch:

 It is used to finish the raw edge of the garment usually referred as the hem. Hemming must be fine, evenly spaced and must be inconspicuous from the right side of the garment. Start the hem with a tiny knot and finish with the same. Hemming must be as invisible as possible on the right side. Of the garment do slanting stitch on wrong side, close enough to hold the hem securely, picking one or two yarns of the fabric. Usually this stitch is seen in all types of garments

This stitch is used for finishing sleeve edges, handkerchief, skirt, hemline, neckline edges, piping, pillow covers and other edges also.

5. Whipping stitch:

 This stitch is used to finish raw edges of fabrics and also in sleeves, collar of kid’s wear. The other name for this stitch is overcasing and rolled hem. Whipping produces slanting stitches taking stitches over the rolled fabric edge with needle in a straight position. Stitching is done from right hand side of the fabric till the left end. After completing, start from the left end, inserting the needle on the same point where the stitch is already formed. Continue the same way from the left to right end. The finished fabric gives continuous ‘X’ shape stitches. On both the sides stitches appear similar in shape.


Even Tacking : the stiches and spaces between them are equal work from right to left. Start with thread knotted or make a back stitches

 Use a thin needle and start the stitch with a knot. The stitches are of equal length on both sides of the material. Many number of longer stitches can be done at a time. This is used for tacking seams & other details which must be held securely.

  Uneven Tacking:

 In this, the stitches on the upper side is at least twice that on the underside. This stitches can be used for longer folds & seams. This is comparatively stronger than even tacking. 

 Diagonal Tacking:

While attaching two or more layer of fabrics this type of stitch is made apart before making machine stitch. Work stitches through the material at right angles to the fabric edge so that a diagonal or slanting stitch in made on the upper side and a vertical stitch is made on the underside.

Tailor’s Tacking:

 Start tacking using double thread of contrasting color, so that they can be easily seen. Tack through double layer of fabric along the seam lines using even stitches of different length apart, leave them as loop without pulling it tight. After completing, raise the upper layer of fabric slightly and clip the thread between the layers. So that the thread tuft, will remain on both the layers of fabric and remain as a guide line. This is especially used for marking details between patterns such as dart markings and pleat markings.


  • The Teacher revises the previous lesson.
  • The Teacher introduces the topic.
  • The Teacher explains the lessons.


  • What are permanent Stitches?
  • Mention the process of basic stitches

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.

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