FIRST AID – (PHE)

TITLE: NOTE OF LESSON ON PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

SUBJECT: PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION

TERM: SECOND TERM

THEME: BASIC MOVEMENT

WEEK: WEEK 5 -6

CLASS: PRIMARY 6

DURATION: 40 MINUTES

TOPIC: FIRST AID – (PHE)

UNITS:

  • Common emergency conditions that require first aid.
  • How to handle emergency condition.
  • Signs and symptoms with treatment of emergency condition.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this discussion in this unit, people should be able to:

  • Know Common emergency conditions that require first aid.
  • Know How to handle emergency condition.
  • Know Signs and symptoms with treatment of emergency condition

TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS

  • Whiteboard/Chalkboard
  • Explanatory posters/pictures
  • Explanatory videos

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS

  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Questions and answers

REFERENCE MATERIALS

  • NERDC Basic Education Curriculum.
  • Universal Basic Education  Curriculum (UBE)
  • Unified Schemes of Work for Lagos State Primary Schools (MIDDLE BASIC)
  • Lagos State Scheme of Work for Physical and Health Education.
  • Online Materials.
  • Edudelight Physical and Health Education for Primary Schools.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS LESSON: The students are familiar with.

WORD FILE: professional, Allergic, reactions. Poisoning.

                                                  CONTENT

First Aid is the first help given to an injured or sick person before professional medical treatment can be given.

COMMON EMERGENCY CONDITIONS THAT REQUIRE FIRST AID

  1. Shock
  2. bleeding
  3. Wounds
  4. Sprain
  5. Fracture
  6. Dislocation
  7. Fainting
  8. Burns
  9. Bites
  10. Heart attack
  11. Poisons

HOW TO HANDLE EMERGENCY CONDITIONS

SHOCK

Shock happens when important organs are not getting the required blood

Causes of shock

  1. Severe infection
  2. Heart stroke
  3. Trauma
  4. Allergic reactions.
  5. Poisoning
  6. Injury

Symptoms of shock

  1. Vomiting
  2. Feeling weak
  3. Slow breathing
  4. Dilated pupils
  5. Cool clammy skin

Treatment of shock

  1. Let the person lie down
  2. Of raising of the legs is painful, keep the person still.
  3. If the person is not breathing, loose the person’s clothes.
  4. Cover him with a blanket
  5. Take the person to the hospital.

B LEEDING

CAUSES OF BLEEDING

  1. Blow to the head
  2. Scurvy
  3. Tooth extraction
  4. Accident and fall
  5. Scalp wound

Symptoms of bleeding

  1. Bruising
  2. Blood in stool
  3. Blood in urine
  4. Blood from wound
  5. Blood coming from the mouth, noise.

Treatment of Bleeding

  1. Wash your hand
  2. Put on a synthetic gloves.
  3. lie the victim down
  4. Use clean water and Dettol to wash the wound.
  5. Stop the bleeding by pressing the blood vessel that supplies the wounded area.
  6. Dress it with cotton wool and bandage.
  7. Take the person to the nearest hospital.

SPRAIN

It is caused by a sudden twist in arm, ankle, etc.

Causes of sprain

  1. Lumps
  2. Inability to move the joint
  3. Trauma
  4. Accident
  5. Lifting of heavy object.

TREATMENT OF SPRAIN

  1. Apply ice block or ice water to the injured area for 20 minutes.
  2. Use a plastic bag with crushed iced wrapped in a wool.
  3. Use compressed bandages to reduce swelling.
  4. Rest for some time
  5. Go to the hospital.

DISLOCATION

Dislocation forces bones out of its socket. It temporarily deforms or immobilizes the joints.

CAUSES OF DISLOCATION

  1. Trauma like fall or blow.
  2. Caused by rheumatoid arthritis

SYMPTOMS OF DISLOCATION

  1. Swelling
  2. Ain
  3. Tenderness
  4. Discolouration

Treatment of dislocation

  1. Do not move the joints or try to place it back.
  2. Place ice to control swelling
  3. If skin is cut, clean gently.
  4. Bandage with sterile gauze.
  5. Cover patient with blanket.
  6. Take the person to the hospital.

Prevention of dislocation

  1. Make your environment safe.
  2. Teach safety habit to children
  3. Wear protective gear while sporting
  4. Do not stand on unstable objects like unstable chair.

BONE FRACTURES

Bone fractures occurs when pressure is applied to the bone.

Type of fracture

  1. Open fracture
  2. Closed fracture
  3. Complicated fracture
  4. Green stick fracture

Symptoms of fracture

  1. Swelling
  2. Bleeding
  3. Deformity
  4. Severe pain

Treatment of fracture

  1. Check the bleeding
  2. Calm the person
  3. Examine for other injuries
  4. Immobilizes the broken wound
  5. Apply ice to reduce pain and swelling
  6. Take the victim to the hospital

Prevention of fracture

  1. Wear protective helmet when driving
  2. Keep to safety rules in home and at school.

FAINTING

Fainting occurs due to decreased blood supply to the brain. Which make the patient to be weak and unconscious sometimes.

Common causes of fainting

  1. Anxiety
  2. Stress
  3. Severe pain
  4. Blood pressure
  5. Emotional upset

Treatment of fainting

  1. Let the patient lie down or sit
  2. If sitting, the patient’s head should be between the knees.
  3. Check to see if airways are clear.
  4. Restore blood flow by losing the person’s belt, shirt or collar
  5. Elevate feet above the head level
  6. Take the person to the hospital.

Prevention of fainting

  1. Lie down
  2. Avoid stress and anxiety
  3. Carefully evaluate your medication

WOUND

Wounds occurs as a result of an accident or injury. It includes cuts, scrapes, punctured skin.

SYMPTOMS OF WOUNDS

  1. Bleeding
  2. Problems with function or feeling below the wounded side
  3. Pain

Treatment of wounds

  1. Wash your hands with soap or antibacterial cleanser to prevent infection
  2. Wash the wound with soap and waster
  3. Use direct pressure to stop the bleeding
  4. Use an antibiotic ointment to prevent infection
  5. Bandage the wound if it is an area that might get dirty
  6. Watch for swelling and redness
  7. Go to hospital

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

  • The Teacher revises the previous lesson (HANDBALL).
  • The Teacher introduces the topic (FIRST AID).
  • The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  • Learners participate in the class discussion.

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

Teacher ask the learners to:

  • Mention Four Common emergency conditions that require first aid.
  • State Three Ways to handle emergency condition.
  • Mention three Signs and symptoms with treatment of emergency condition.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.

PREVIOUS LESSON: HAND BALL

NEXT LESSON: BENEFIT OF HAVING GOOD FRIENDS

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