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CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS AND THEIR USES

TITLE: NOTE OF LESSON ON AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

THEME: BASIC CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE

TERM: FIRST TERM

WEEK: WEEK 5

CLASS: PRIMARY 5

NAME OF TEACHER:

DATE:

CLASS: PRIMARY 5                           

AGE OF STUDENTS:

CLASS COMPOSITION: Slow and fast learners.

PERIOD:

DURATION: 40 MINUTES

TOPIC: CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS AND THEIR USES

Units:

  • Classification according to forms.
  • Classification according to life span.
  • Classification according to uses and types.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this Module, Pupils should be able to know:

  • Classification of crops and their uses according to forms.
  • Classification of crops and their uses according to life span.
  • Classification of crops and their uses according to uses and types.

TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS

  • Samples of rock
  • Whiteboard/ Chalkboard
  • Explanatory posters/pictures
  • Explanatory videos

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHOD

  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Questions and Answers.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

  • Universal Basic Education Curriculum.
  • NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.
  • Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)
  • Internet.
  • Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work
  •  Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with processes of soil formation.

WORD FILE:                         

                        MODULE CONTENT

Club can be grouped (classified) according to the following:

  1. Classification according to forms.
  2. Classification according to life span.
  3. Classification according to uses and types.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO FORM

When a seed is planted, the seed increases in size and opens up to show the first leaf/leaves inside the seed (seed leaf or cotyledon). This grows into the young plant. The seed leaf or cotyledon stores the food needed for the young plant to grow.

There are two classes of plants based on the number of cotyledons they have:

  1. Monocotyledonous plants or Monocot: they have seeds with only one seed leaf (cotyledon). Examples are: millet, guinea corn, maize, coconut, onion, sugarcane, rice, pineapple.
  2. Dicotyledonous plants:  they have two cotyledons or two seed leaves. Examples are: soya beans, tomato, orange, groundnuts, beans, cocoa.cotyledonous

Differences between a monocotyledonous plant and a dicotyledonous plant

  1. Monocotyledon has one cotyledon while a dicotyledon has two cotyledons.
  2. During germination, the single cotyledon of a monocotyledon remains in the soil, while the two cotyledons of a dicotyledons grow above the surface of the soil.
  3. The leaves of a monocotyledon have narrow and long veins while the leaf veins of a dicotyledon look like a web or net.
  4. The stem of monocotyledon has no branches, while the stem of a dicotyledon has branches.
  5. A monocotyledonous plant have fibrous roots system while a dicotyledonous plant has a tap root.

          CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO LIFESPAN

Life span is the period a crop spends from germination till it dries up. There are three main classes of such crops. Crops may be grouped according to lifespan.

  1. Annual Crops: these are crops grown from seed to mature plant in a growing season or a year. That is they produced germinate, produce fruits and die within one year. Examples are maize, rice, beans, groundnut, tomato millet and guinea corn.
  2. Biennial Crops: these are crops grown from seed to mature plant in two seasons or two years. That is these crops grow for more than one year but they die before the end of the second year. Examples are cassava, cabbage, onion, sugarcane, pepper.
  3. Perennial Crops: they are crops grown from seed to mature plant in three to five years or more that is these grow for more than two years, and continue to bear fruits for many more years. Most of them are tree crops e.g. oil palm, cacao, rubber, cashew, mango, coconut, kola nut and orange, banana.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO USE AND TYPE

Crops are grown for different uses. On the basis of type, we have the following;

  1. FOOD CROPS: these are crops that we eat. The following are food crops:
  2. CEREALS: These are crops that produce grains or seeds rich in carbohydrate e.g.  Wheat, millet, rice, maize, corn, guinea, sorghum. Cereals are Grain crops.
  3. LEGUMES: legumes produce seeds that are rich in protein. They bear their seeds inside the pods and they enrich the soil with nutrient (nitrogen) thereby improving soil fertility. Examples are soya beans, groundnuts, cowpeas.
  4. VEGETABLES: vegetables are edible leaves or fruits that may be cooked before eating e.g. waterleaf, okra, bitter leaf, amaranthus, corchorus (ewedu).
  5. FRUITS: fruits gives us vitamins and minerals. Fruits may be eaten without cooking them. E.g. coconut, mango, orange, cashew, banana, pineapple.
  6. CASH CROPS: These are crops exported for income. These are:
  7. Latex crops: these crop produce sap that is converted to raw rubber used in making tyres. E.g. rubber tree.
  8. Beverage crops: these are crops that produce food drinks. They are used to make cocoa drinks and chocolates. Examples are coffee and tea.
  • SPICE CROPS: these are crops that give our cooking very sweet aroma and make it taste delicious. E.g. tomatoes, ginger, pepper, onion.
  • ROOT AND TUBER CROPS: they have swollen edible, underground stems or roots. E.g. cassava, cocoyam, potato, yam, carrot.
  • OIL CROPS: Oils are gotten from palm oil, melon, coconut, cotton, and groundnut. Oils are used in cooking, in making soap.
  • DRUG CROPS: they are used to cure diseases and wounds. E.g. neem (dogonyaro), eucalyptus.
  • FIBRE CROPS: these crops produce materials for weaving clothes, bags and sacks. Examples are jute, sisal, kenaf, cotton.
  • FORAGE CROPS: they are plants/grass gown for feeding animal’s e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, pueraria and centosema.
  • ORNAMENTAL CROPS: Ornamental crops are grown to beautify surroundings e.g. rose flower, cotton, hibiscus flower, red acalypha.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

  • The Teacher revises the previous lesson (PROCESSES OF SOIL FORMATION).
  • The Teacher introduces the topic (CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS AND THEIR USES).
  • The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  • Learners participate in the class discussion
  • Learners observe some rock samples

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

  • Mention three Classification of crops and their uses according to forms.
  • Mention three Classification of crops and their uses according to life span.
  • Mention three Classification of crops and their uses according to uses and types.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.

PREVIOUS LESSON: THE LAND AND THE SOIL

NEXT LESSON: PROPERTIES OF SOIL

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