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FORMATION OF SOIL

TITLE: NOTE OF LESSON ON AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE

THEME: BASIC CONCEPTS IN AGRICULTURE

TERM: FIRST TERM

NAME OF TEACHER:

DATE:

CLASS: PRIMARY 4                           

AGE OF STUDENTS:

CLASS COMPOSITION: Slow and fast learners.

PERIOD:

DURATION: 40 MINUTES

TOPIC: FORMATION OF SOIL

Units:

  • Agents of soil formation.
  • How soil is formed/ processes of soil formation.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this Module, Pupils should be able to know:

  • The Agents of soil formation.
  • How soil is formed

TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS

  • Samples of rock
  • Whiteboard/ Chalkboard
  • Explanatory posters/pictures
  • Explanatory videos

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHOD

  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Questions and Answers.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with the characteristics of types of soil.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

  • Universal Basic Education Curriculum.
  • NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for Primary Schools.
  • Unified Schemes of Work Primary Schools four Agricultural Science (MIDDLE BASIC)
  • Internet.
  • Lagos State Agricultural Science Scheme of Work
  •  Edudelight Agricultural Science for Primary Schools.

WORD FILE: formation, Weathering, temperature, splitting, earthworm. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa.

                               MODULE CONTENT

                           FORMATION OF SOIL

Soil formation show us how soil is formed. Soil is formed when rocks break down into smaller particles. It can also be called Weathering. These happens as a result of the following Agents.

Agents of soil formation

The agent of soil formation are:

  1. Rain
  2. Temperature
  3. Wind
  4. Man
  5. Animals
  6. Plants

                          RAIN

When rain falls, it touches the rocks which tears out tiny pieces of rocks. The water from the rain will wash these pieces of rock to form soil.

                  TEMPERATURE

High temperature make rock to expand, crack and break down into small pieces. It is cause by hot sun or heat.

                           WIND

When heavy wind blows, it will blow away small pieces of rocks from the large ones which creates more room for loose rock to fall which later turn to soil.

                                       MAN

Man help in soil formation when he/she make use of some farm tools like hoe on rocky areas, he try to break the little rocks or stones which later turn to soil. Man splitting firewood on the rock or breaking objects on the rock leads to soil formation.

                                         ANIMALS

When huge animal like cattle’s, elephant walk on a rocky place, it breaks the rock into smaller pieces thereby forming soil. Also when animal dies their body decays and mixed with the soil.

                                                     PLANT

As plant keeps growing, the root of the plants keep expanding and getting strong on the ground. Like the root of trees breaks down rock particle during expansion and growth. Also when plants dies their body decays and mixed with the soil.

THE PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION

The decomposition and dissolution of rocks through weathering and with the help of soil organisms like earthworm. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa and the help of chemical substances in the soil bring about soil formation

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

  • The Teacher revises the previous lesson (CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF SOIL).
  • The Teacher introduces the topic (SOIL FORMATION).
  • The Teacher explains the lessons.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

  • Learners participate in the class discussion
  • Learners observe some rock samples

EVALUATIVE ACTIVITIES

  • Mention three agent of Soil formation.
  • How is soil formed?

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.

PREVIOUS LESSON: CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPES OF SOIL

NEXT LESSON: PROPERTIES OF SOIL

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