TITLE: LESSON NOTE ON BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
TERM: SECOND TERM
THEME: LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS
WEEK: WEEK 10
CLASS: PRIMARY 5
NAME OF TEACHER:
AGE OF STUDENTS:
CLASS COMPOSITION: Slow and fast learners.
TIME: 40 MINUTES
- Soap and detergents.
- Local materials used for making soap
- Active ingredients of the materials
- Methods of soap preparation.
- Industrial process of soap making
- Chemical needed for soap making
- Uses of soap.
At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to:
- Name local materials used in making soap.
- Identify the active ingredients in the local materials used in making soap.
- Make soap from local materials.
- State the uses of soap.
TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS
- Bathing soap
- Liquid soap
- Antiseptic soap
- Explanatory posters/pictures rocks.
- Explanatory videos on domestic rocks.
TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS
- Questions and answer
- NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for primary schools.
- Universal Basic Education Curriculum for
- Lagos State Scheme of Work for Basic Science and Technology.
- Unified Schemes of Work for Lagos State Primary Schools (MIDDLE BASIC)
- Online Materials.
- Edudelight Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools.
ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with acids and base.
WORD FILE: agent,chemical,reaction.
Soap is a cleansing agent that usually form foam with water. Soap can be made locally or industrially. Soap is a substance produced by the chemical reaction of caustic potash or caustic soda with vegetable oil or animal fat.
SAPONIFICATION: it is the process of making soap.
There are basically two type of soap. These are:
- Soft soap or potassium soap: it is the mixture of caustic potash and oil. Examples of soft soap are liquid, toilet and some antiseptic soap.
- Hard soap or sodium soap: it is the mixture of caustic soda and oil results in hard soap. Examples of hard soap is bar soap we use in washing our clothes.
Other substances like perfumes, colour and preservatives can be added to soap.
MAKING OF SOAP S USING ACTIVE INGREDIENT – SODA SOAP
Active ingredients are the chemical used in soap making. They are classified into two (2).
- Acids: examples are acetic acid and sometimes sulphuric acids.
- Bases: soluble base (Alkalis) e.g. caustic soda, caustic potash etc.
Materials needed for soap: stove (any source of heat), frying pan, clean container, open pot, stirrer.
The following are steps for producing soda soap.
- Heating Palm oil in a frying pan until it changes colour.
- Remove the fried oil from the stove or burner.
- Measure small amount of caustic soda into it.
- Heat the mixture of caustic soda and palm oil.
- Mix the mixture thoroughly using stirrer until the mixture is thicken.
- Stop heating the mixture and pour the mixture into an empty milk tin.
- Allow the content in the milk tin to cool and become harden.
- Allow the mixture to cool and set
- Remove the soap from the tin and carry out the following test.
- Your soap is formed.
MAKING OF SOAP FROM LOCAL MATERIALS
- Take the husk (skin) of unripe plantain and dry it completely for some days.
- Burn the dry husk until it turns into ashes.
- Put the ashes in a frying pan and add a measure amount of palm oil
- Boil the content
- Stir the content (fried oil and ashes) continuously with a wooden stick.
- A semi- solid black soap called native soap is formed.
USES OF SOAP
- Soap is used for bathing
- Used when moping and scrubbing of the floor.
- For washing clothes, plates and other plastics materials.
- Used to remove grease from machine parts in our industries.
- Used as cleaning agent in industries to clean can, bottles.
- The Teacher revises the previous lesson (ACIDS AND BASE).
- The Teacher introduces the lesson through question and answer (Soap).
- The Teacher explains the lessons.
- The Teacher write the note on the board.
Learners participate in the class discussion
Teacher ask the learners to:
- Name thee local materials used in making soap.
- Mention the active ingredients in the local materials used in making soap.
- Explain how to make soap from local materials.
- State three uses of soap.
CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.
PREVIOUS LESSON: ACIDS AND BASE
NEXT LESSON: SOAP II