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ACIDS AND BASES

TITLE:  LESSON NOTE ON BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SUBJECT: BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TERM: SECOND TERM

THEME: LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS

WEEK: WEEK 9

CLASS: PRIMARY 5

NAME OF TEACHER:

DATE:          

AGE OF STUDENTS:

CLASS COMPOSITION: Slow and fast learners.

PERIOD:

TIME: 40 MINUTES

TOPIC: ACIDS AND BASES

Units:

  • Meaning of Acids and Bases
  • Physical properties of acids and bases
  • Types of acids and bases
  • Uses of acids and bases

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lesson, Pupils should be able to:

  1. Give examples of acid and base.
  2. List some physical properties of acid and base.
  3. State types of acid and base
  4. Distinguish between acid and base.
  5. Name local materials used in making soap.
  6. Identify the active ingredients in the local materials used in making soap.
  7. Make soap from local materials.
  8. State the uses of soap.

TEACHING AND LEARNING MATERIALS

  • Whiteboard/Chalkboard
  • Explanatory posters/pictures rocks.
  • Explanatory videos on domestic rocks.

TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS

  • Explanation
  • Discussion
  • Questions and answer

REFERENCE MATERIALS

  • NERDC Basic Education Curriculum for primary schools.
  • Universal Basic Education Curriculum for primary schools.
  • Lagos State Scheme of Work for Basic Science and Technology.
  • Unified Schemes of Work for Lagos State Primary Schools (MIDDLE BASIC)
  • Online Materials.
  • Edudelight Basic Science and Technology for Primary Schools.

ENTRY BEHAVIOUR/ PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: the students are familiar with soap.

WORD FILE: substance,   industry, Synthetics.           

             LESSON CONTENT

ACIDS AND BASES

An Acid is a chemical substance that can react with other materials. They are used in specific places like laboratory, industry and research centres. Unripe fruits contains acid that is why if you taste an unripe orange it will be sour. Etc.

Types of acids

There are Natural acids and the Synthetics acids.

NATURAL ACIDS

NATURAL ACIDS are called organic acids: this acid occurs naturally, they are found in plants and animals.

EXAMPLES OF NATURAL ACIDS

  1. Ascorbic acid, or acetic acid in vinegar
  2.  Citric acid in lime.
  3. Lactic acid in spoilt milk.
  4. Tartaric Acid in grape.

SYNTHETICS ACIDS

Synthetic acids are produced by human – beings (scientists) in the laboratory.

EXAMPLES OF SYNTHETICS ACIDS

  1. Hydrochloric acid
  2. acetic acid
  3. nitric axcid
  4.  sulphuric acid
  5.  tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

  1.  They have sour taste.
  2. Concentrated acids can are corrosive.
  3. They turn blue litmus paper red.
  4. The concentrated acid can react with plastic and metals and damage them.
  5. They neutralize bases to form salt and water.

USES OF ACIDS

  1. They are used in the manufacture of paint, fertilizers, drugs and other chemicals in dustry.
  2. They are used as solvent.
  3. They are used in the production of gasses like hydrogen, carbon dioxide.
  4. They are used to produce chemicals in the laboratory.

                  BASE

Base are chemical substances that react with acid to form salt and water only. They are found in natural objects like wood ash, burnt palm, bunch of waste etc.

                         Types of Bases

The two type of bases are:

  1. Soluble bases or alkalis bases: these are bases that are soluble in water. Examples are sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), potassium hydroxide (caustic potash).
  2. Insoluble bases: these are bases that are not soluble in water, e.g. copper (II) oxide and Zinc Oxide.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BASE

  1. Base have bitter taste.
  2. Base are slippery or soapy to touch.
  3. They turn red litmus paper to blue.
  4. Concentrated base are corrosive.

              USES OF BASES

  1. They are used in the production of soap.
  2. They are used in the production of chemicals.
  3. Some bases are used in the production of glass, drugs and detergents.
  4. They are used in the production of salt when dissolved in acids.
  5. Lime water (Calcium hydroxide), which is base is used in the production of plaster of Paris (POP).

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE

  • The Teacher revises the previous lesson (ROCK).
  • The Teacher introduces the lesson through question and answer (Acid and Bases).
  • The Teacher explains the lessons.
  • The Teacher write the note on the board.

LEARNERS ACTIVITIES

Learners participate in the class discussion

LESSON EVALUATION

Teacher ask the learners to:

  • Identify and classify rocks according to colour, hardness, texture.
  • List some three important uses of rocks such as construction and beautification.
  • Name three major landmark rocks in Nigeria.

CONCLUSION: the teacher summarize the lesson.

PREVIOUS LESSON: Rocks

NEXT LESSON: SOAP

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