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Economics Second Term Scheme of Work and Lesson Notes for Senior Secondary School One( SSS 1)

Second Term Scheme of Work Economics for SSS 3

  1. Capital as a factor of production – Entrepreneur as a factor of production
  2. Division of labour and specialization
  3. Scale of production
  4. Firm and industry
  5. Business organization
  6. Sole proprietor ship and partnership
  7. Joint  stock company
  8. Co-operative societies
  9. Public enterprises
  10. Population
  11. Population census
  12. Theories of population
  13. Labour market
  14. Revision

Lesson Note For The First Week Ending January 12th 2020.

CLASS: SS1

Duration: 40 m/p

NUMBER OF PERIOD : 4

Topic: – production

Sub-topics –  Capital as a factor of production

                        – Entrepreneur as a factor of production

OBJECTIVES – The students are expected to:

  1. State the meaning of capital and entrepreneur
  2. State the feature/characteristics of capital
  3. List and explain the various type of capital
  4. State the function of an entrepreneur.

PREVIOUS  KNOWLEDGE –  The students have been taught about land and labour as a factor of production.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL –   white board and marker.

REFERENCE MATERIAL –  Comprehensive Economics for SS1-3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele :- fundamentals of Economics for SSS by R.A.I Anyawuocha.

Content:

Period 1 & 2

CAPITAL –  capital is simply man made factor of production. It is the wealth set aside for the creation of further wealth. Capital and a factor of production include: physical cash, machines tools, building, raw materials, fuel etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITAL

  1. It is a man made  factor of production
  2. It takes difference forms e.g  machinery, money, stock etc.
  3. It may be fixed e.g building
  4. The reward of capital is interest.

TYPES OF CAPITAL

  1. FIXED CAPITAL:- These are durable Assets or properties of an organization that can last for a long period of time.
  2. CIRCULATING CAPITAL OR WORKING CAPITAL – This refers to those materials that changes from one form to another during production process e.g raw material, fuel etc. They are needed for everyday productive purposes.
  3. CURRENT CAPITAL –  This refers to those things needed for day to day running of a business organization e.g cash or money they also change from one form to another.
  4. SOCIAL CAPITAL – This refers to social amenities proceeded by the state/Government e.g electricity, roads, water etc.

IMPORTANCE OF CAPITAL

  1. It aids production
  2. It facilitates efficiency
  3. It facilitates the production of quality products
  4. Determinants of the location of industry.
  5. Increase in standard of living
  6. Allows for smooth running of a business organization

Period 3 & 4

Entrepreneur –  An entrepreneur  may simply be referred to as the organizer  of other factors of production.  An entrepreneur co-ordinates and organizes other factors of production for more productive purpose. The reward of an entrepreneur  is profit or loss.

FUNCTIONS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR

  1. Provides of capital for the business
  2. Bears the risk of the business.
  3. Co-ordinates other factors up production  
  4. Takes decision  for the business
  5. Ensure efficiency in the management of the business.
  6. Carries out research for the improvement of the business

Presentation

Step 1:          The teacher revises the previous labour.

Step 2:        Introduces the new topics

Step 3:        Explanation of salient points

Step 4:        General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. Why is capital necessary in the running of a business enterprise?
  2. The entrepreneur is the brain behind the  successful running of a business discuss.

Assignment:

  1. List and explain the various forms of capital
  2. What are the importance of capital to an organization
  3. List and explain at least five (5) functions of an entrepreneur.

Conclusion: The teacher summarizes the lesson and give the students note on the topic taught.

Lessons Note For The Second Week Ending 19-01-2020

CLASS:                SS1

Duration:              40 m/p

Nos of person:     4

Topic:                  DIVISIONS OF LABOUR AND SPECIALIZATION.

OBJECTIVES:      The Students should be able to:

  • State the meaning of division of labour and specialization.
  • Give a brief history of division of labour.
  • State the advantages and disadvantages of division of labour and specialization.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE:  The students are familiar with the production process.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL –  White board and marker.

REFERENCE MATERIAL – Comprehension Economics for SS1 – 3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele and fundamentals economics for SS1-3 by R.A.I Anyawuocha.

CONTENT PER 1 & 2

Division of labour is the breaking down of production process into similar components  and each of the component/ unit is performed by different people.

Specialization can be defined as the concentration of a worker in an aspect of production.

HISTORY

Adam Smith in his book, written in 1976 titled “The wealth of Nation” made an illustration of division of labour through a pin production factory. The factory has 2020 laid down process for the production of pin and one person was employed to handle the while process, at the end of the day he was only able to produced 20 pins but when Adam Smith advices on the use of division of labour so that one person handled only one process it was found that 48,000 pins were produced in a day. This is how the application of modern division of labour came into existence in  our present day.

Presentation

Step i:           The teacher review the previous lesson

Step ii:        Introduces the new topic.

Step iii:       Explains the salient point in the subject matter.

Step iv:         General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. State the difference(s) between division of labour and specialization.

Assignment:

How can division of labour be applied to a bread factory.

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and give student note.

Period 3  & 4

Duration:              40 m/p

Content:

Advantages of Division of labour and specialization.

  1. It increases output
  2. It saves time
  3. It increases skill
  4. It also reduces fatigue
  5. It creates employment opportunity
  6. It leads to specialization.

Disadvantages of division of labour and specialization

  1. It brings about monotony of task
  2. It brings about  immobility of labour
  3. It results in decline in craftsmanship
  4. It leads to unemployment
  5. It increases interdependence among individuals

Limitation of Division of Labour

  1.  The size of the marker
  2. Availability of labour
  3. The nature of the product
  4. Availability  of capital
  5. Government policy
  6. Technical difficulties or possibilities presentation

Presentation

Step 1:        Revision of the last topic

Step 2:        Introduction of the new topic

Step 3:        General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. What  is the effect of division of labour and specialization on production of goods.

Assignment

  1. State at least 5 advantages and 5 disadvantages of division of labour and specialization
  2. What are the limiting factors to division of labour.

Conclusion –  The teacher summarizes the lesson nd give the students note.

Lesson Note For The Third Week Ending 26-01-2020

Class:                            SS1

Duration:                       40 m/p

NUMBER OF PERIOD :   4

Topic:                            Scale of production

Objectives –  The students are expected to:

  1. Define the term economic of scale
  2. State the types of economics of scarce
  3. Give the advantages a large firm has over smaller firms.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE: The students have been taught about production and the factors of production.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL – White board and marker

REFERENCE MATERIALS –  Comprehensive  economics by J.U. Anyaele

Content P. 1 & 2

Economics of scale mean the growth of a firm or an industry resulting from the expansion of the volume of productive capacity which leads to increase in output and decrease in its post of production   per unit of output. It is also on economics term that describes a competitive advantage that large entities (firm or industry) have over smaller entities. It means that the large  the business, nor profit or government, the lower its cost. For example the cost of producing one unit is less when many units are produced at once.

TYPES OF ECONOMICS OF SCALE

  1. Internal economics and internal diseconomies of scale.
  2. External economics and internal diseconomies of scale.

INTERNAL ECONOMIES OF SCALE

Internal economies of scale is known as the economies of large scale production. This is the advantages a firm derives from the expansion of its scale of production as a result of its own efforts. In this case, as the size of the firm increases, there will be greater efficiency resulting in the fall in the cost per unit of output.

INTERNAL DISECONOMIES:- This  is the expansion of the production capacity which would lead to decrease in efficiency  and increase in  cost of production per unit of output.

EXTERNAL ECONOMIES:- This is the advantages  a business experiences  as a result of being close to other business that would provides benefits to the business.

EXTERNAL DISECONOMIES:- This  is the disadvantages that a business suffers due to the competition within the environment.

Presentation:

Step i:           The Teacher introduces the lesson

Step ii:        Revises the previous lesson

Step iii:       Explanation of cogent points.

Step iv:       General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. What is External diseconomies and Economies of scale.

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and gives note to the student.

Period 4 & 5

Duration:                        40 m/p

NUMBER OF PERIOD               2

Content – Advantages of large scale of production.

  1. Marketing Economies:- A large firm can embark  on advertisement for its product in order to increase scales.
  2. Financial Economies:- A large firm due to its financial capacity can obtain ban from the bank, issues shares  and debenture to the member of the public in order to raise more money.
  3. Technological or technical Economies:- A large firm can afford to use advanced machines, apply division of labour etc. to increase its productive capacity as well as lower its cost of production  per unit.
  4. Research economies:-  A large firm due to its position can undergo some researchers.
  5. Managerial Economies: With strong financial base and large size, a large firm can employ managerial experts from various fields to manage the firm.
  6. Welfare Economies:- A large firm provides welfare facilities like hospital, housing, canteen etc for its staff.
  7. Training Economies:– A large firm is in a better position of warding off  competitors  and bearing  business risks than a small firm.

Disadvantages of large scale of production

  1. Evil of factory system:-  The large scale economies is accompanied  by the evils of the factory system  like our – crowding, density, pollution  bad morals etc. Dirty habits of drinking and gambling spread very easily.
  2. The relationship between employer and employees of a large firm is more interpersonal than a small scale firm.
  3. Large scale firm spends more money to maintain its complex organization than a small scale firm.
  4. A large scale firm has increased business risk more than small scale firm.
  5. In a time of economic depression a large scale firm may retrence more workers than a small firm.
  6. Supervision of workers is more difficult in a large scale firm than a small scale firm.
  7. Decision money is more complex due to the bureaucratic nature of the large scale firm than a small scale firm.

Presentation:

Step 1:        The teacher revises the previous lesson

Step 2:        Introduces the new lesson

Step 3:        Explanation of cogent points

Step 4:        General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. Of what important is the large scale of production to an organization.

Assignment

  1. Differentiate between internal economies and external economies.
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of large scale of production.

Conclusion – The Teacher summarizes the lesson and gives students note.

Lesson Note For Fourth Week Ending 02-01-2020

Class  –                           SS I

Duration –                       40 m/p

NUMBER OF PERIOD  –  4

Topic –  FIRM AND INDUSTRY

OBJECTIVES  –  The student should be able to:

  1. State the differences between firm, plant and industry
  2. State some of the factors to be considered when sitting a firm.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The student are familiar to organization around them e.g. schools, bakery, shops etc.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS – Charts

REFERENCE MATERIALS – Comprehensive Economics for SS1-3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele.

CONTENT

  1. Plant: The place where production occurs
  2. Firm – This refers to an independent business unit e.g U.A.C Nigeria Ltd. Unilever Plc etc.
  3. Industry – An industry is made up of various combinations of firms that are into similar activities.

FACTORS THAT DETERMINE

  1. Amount of capital available for investment.
  2. The number of owners
  3. Sources of capital available to a firm.
  4. The efficiency or inefficiency of the business management
  5. The size of its market
  6. The nature of the business
  7. The number of owners

Presentation

Step 1:        The teacher revises the previous lesson

Step 2:        Introduces the new topic

Step 3:        Explanation of salient point

Step 4:        General class description

Evaluation

  • What is a firm?
  • Differentiate between a firm and industry

Assignment

Write out the various factors that will necessitate the size of a business unit.

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and gives students note.

Lesson Note for The Fifth  Week  Ending  01 – 02 -2020

CLASS:                          SSI

DURATION:                   40 M/P

NUMBER OF PERIOD:    4

TOPIC:                           BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

SUB-TOPIC:                   (i) SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP

                                      (ii) PARTNERSHIP

OBJECTIVES: The students are expected to:

  • State the meaning of sole proprietorship  and partnership
  • Differentiate between the sole trader and a partnership business
  • State the advantages and disadvantages of a sole proprietorship and a partnership business.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students are familiar  to firm and industry.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL – Charts/Picture

REFERENCE MATERIALS – Fundamental of Economics by R.A.I Anyanwuocha: Comprehensive Economics for SS1 – 3 by Johnson U. Anyaele.

CONTENT

Period 1 & 2

SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP – It is simply means one man business. It is a business owned by one man. The owner can engage a number of employees to work for him. It is the oldest form of business in African.

Advantages of the sole proprietorship

  1. The business requires little capital for its take off
  2. He makes quick decision
  3. He enjoys close personal relationship with the worker.
  4. He is not under any law to publish h is book of account for public scrutiny
  5. He can convert his business capital at any given time.
  6. The business is not difficult to operate.

Disadvantages of the sole proprietorship

  1. Inadequate capital
  2. Absence of specialization
  3. Death of the owner may lead to collapse of the business.
  4. It is an unlimited liability outfit
  5. It is not a legal entity

Presentation

Step i:         Teacher review the previous lesson

Step ii:        He explains the term sole proprietorship

Step iii:       General class discussion.

Evaluation

  • What is a proprietorship?
  • Give two advantages and two disadvantages of sole proprietorship.

Assignment

List and explain the characteristic of a sole proprietorship.

Period 3 & 4

Duration –    40 m/p

Number of period – 2

CONTENT – PARTNERSHIP FORM OF BUSINESS

A partnership firm of business is a business that is owned by 2 to 20 people, though in banking it is usually 2 to 10.

Advantages

  1. The business enjoys privacy
  2. There is a better decision making since good head is better than one
  3. It has greater opportunity to raise capital than a sole proprietorship.
  4. To a greater extent continuity is ensured.
  5. There is personal relationship with both employers and customers.
  6. Business risk and shared
  7. Capital is easily obtained.

Disadvantages

  1. It suffers unlimited liability
  2. The death of a partner could result to the end of the business
  3. It is a non legal entity
  4. Problem may spring up due to the inability to arrive at a specific decision.
  5. It has limited expansion.

Presentation:

  1. Step 1:          Review of the last lesson
  2. Step 2:          Introduction of the new topic
  3. Step 3:          explanation  of the topic
  4. Step 4:          General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. What is a partnership?
  2. What are the differences between a sole trader and a partnership.

Assignment

  1. What are the basic feature of a partnership
  2. Write out at least four advantages and disadvantages of a partnership.

Lesson Note For The Sixth Week Ending 16-02-2020

Class:                             SSI

Duration:                        40 m/p

Number of period:          4

Topic:                            JOINT STOCK COMPANY

Sub-topic:                      (i) Private limited liability

                                                (ii) Public limited liability

Objectives: The students are expected to:

  1. Define  Limited liability company
  2. Differentiate between a private and public limited liability company
  3. State the advantages and disadvantages of the limited liability company.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE – The students had been taught about sole proprietorship and partnership in the previous class.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:-  Charts

REFERENCE MATERIAL:-  Comprehensive Economics for SS1 – 3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele fundamentals of Economics for SSCE by R.A.I Anyanwuocha.

CONTENT P 1 & 2

A company may be defined as a business organization established by an association of people distinct from the owners. A limited liability Company is a company which the liabilities of the owners are limited to the capital contributed unto the business.

FEATURES OF A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

  1. Legal entity or legal status
  2. Perpetual existence
  3. Limited liabilities
  4. Dividend payment

TYPES OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

  1. Private Limited  Liability Company
  2. Public Limited Liability Company

Presentation

Step 1:        The teacher revises the previous topic

Step 2:        Introduces the new topic

Step 3:        Explanation of cogent points.

Step 4:        General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. Differentiate between a limited liability company and the partnership business.

Period 3 & 4

Duration  –                 40m/p

Number of period –    2

Content –                   PARTNERSHIP FORM OF BUSINESS

A partnership form of business is a business that is owned by 2 to 20 people, though in banking it is usually 2 to 10.

  1. The business enjoys privacy
  2. There is better decision making since good head is better than one.
  3. It has opportunity to raise capital than a sole proprietorship.
  4. To a greater extent continuity is ensured.
  5. There is personal relationship with both employers and customers.
  6. Business risk are shared
  7. Capital is easily obtained

DISADVANTAGES

  1. It suffers unlimited liability
  2. The death of a partner could result to the end of the business
  3. It is a non legal entity
  4. Problem may spring up due to the inability to arrive at a specific decisions
  5. It has limited expansion.

Presentation

  1. Step 1:          Review of the last lesson
  2. Step 2:        Introduction of the new topic
  3. Step 3:        Explanation of the topic
  4. Step 4:        General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. What is a partnership?
  2. What are the differences between a sole trader and a partnership

Assignment

  1. What are the basic feature at a partnership?
  2. Write out at least four advantages and disadvantages of a partnership.

Lesson Note For The Sixth Week Ending 16/02/2020

Class:                            SS1

Duration:                       40 m/p

Number of period:          4

Topic:                            JOINT STOCK COMPANY SUB-TOPIC (a) Private                                                 Limited Liability.

Objectives:                    The students are expected to:

  1. Define Limited Liability Company
  2. Differentiate between a private and public Limited Liability Company
  3. State the advantages and disadvantages  of the Limited Liability Company.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students had been taught about sole proprietorship and partnership in the previous class.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS – Charts

REFERENCES MATERIAL – Comprehensive  Economics for SS1 – 3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele fundamentals of Economies for SSCE by R.A.I Anyanwuocha.

Content  P 1 & 2

A company may be defined as a business organization established by an association of people distinct from the owners.

A Limited Liability Company is a Company which the liability of the owners are limited to the capital contributed unto the business.

FEATURES OF A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

  1. Legal entity or legal status
  2. Perpetual existence
  3. Limited Liabilities
  4. Dividend Payment

TYPES OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

  1. Private Limited Liability Company
  2. Public Limited Liability  Company.

Presentation

Step 1:          The teacher revises the previous topic

Step 2:        Introduces the new topic

Step 3:        Explanation of cogent point

Step 4:        General class discussion evaluation

  1. Differentiate between a limited liability company and the partnership business.

Period 3 & 4

Duration:                       40 m/p

Number of period:          2

Content:               Advantages and Disadvantages of Limited Liability                                     Company.

Advantages

  1. It is a legal entity
  2. Shareholders enjoys limited Liability
  3. Continuity is ensured
  4. Ownership is separated from management
  5. Enjoyment of large scale production
  6. There is application of division of labour
  7. There is democracy in its management
  8. Provision of investment opportunities  
  9. Employees may become co-owner.

Disadvantages

  1. It is hard to establish
  2. Delay in policy and decision making
  3. Denies individual initiatives
  4. Lack of flexibility
  5. Decrease in personal interest
  6. Lack of cordial relationship between the employers and the employees
  7. Prone to frequent  disagreement
  8. Ownership is separated from the management.

Presentation:

Step 1:        The teacher revises the previous lesson

Step 2:        Introduction of the new topics

Step 3:        Explanation of salient point

Step 4:        General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. What are the differences between a private Limited Liability Company and a public Limited Liability Company.

Assignment

  1. List and explain the various documents needed in the formation of a company
  2. List and explain the types of capital available to a limited liability company.

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and gives the student note.

Lesson Note For The Seventh Week Ending 23-02-2020

Class –         SS1

Duration –   40 m/p

Number of period – 4

Topic – BUSINESS ORGANIZATION

Sub-topic    (i)      Co-operative societies

                   (ii)     Public Corporate

Objectives –  The students should be able to (i)

  • State the meaning of co-operative societies as well as public enterprises.
  • State the features of a corporative  society and a public enterprise
  • State the advantages and disadvantages of cooperative societies and push corporation.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students had been taught about Limited Liability Company.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL – Charts

REFERENCE MATERIAL – Comprehensive Economics by J.U. Anyaele.

Content period 1 & 2

Co-operative society can be defined as a business organization in which individuals with common mutual interest agreed to come together to establish it in order to promote their economic activities like production, distribution etc.

FEATURES OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

  1. They are not necessarily formed to make profit
  2. They apply the principle of democracy in decision making
  3. It is owned by minimum of two and has no limits to its membership
  4. Profits if made, are shared on the basic of patronage.

TYPES OF CO-OPERATIVES

  1. Consumers Co-operate Societies
  2. Producers Co-operative Societies
  3. Credit and Thrift Co-operative Society.

Presentation:

Step 1:          The teacher revises the previous lesson

Step 2:        Introduction to the new topic

Step 3:        Explanation of cogent points

Step 4:        General class discussion

Evaluation

  • What is co-operative Society?
  • List at least three features of co-operative societies

Assignment

  1. Write out at least five advantages and disadvantages of co-operative societies.

Period 3 & 4

Duration  –   40 m/p

Number of period – 2

CONTENT  –  Public Corporative/Enterprises

Public Enterprise are business organization owned, financed by the government in order to provide some essential services at a reduced cost e.g. N.T.A, N.E.P.A.

FEATURES OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES

  1. It is owned and financed by the government
  2. It is to break even and not to make profit
  3. It is established through act of parliament
  4. It enjoys monopoly i.e no competition
  5. It requires large sum of money for its establishment

REASONS FOR ESTABLISHING PUBLIC ENTERPRISE

  1. To render essential services
  2. To avoid exploitation
  3. For security/strategic reason
  4. To create job opportunities
  5. It requires large  capital for its take off.

PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISE

  1. There is lack of qualified personnel
  2. Employment is not based on merits but on good fatherism
  3. There is political interference and victims
  4. There is mismanagement and corruption
  5. Poor attitude to work by the workers
  6. There is bureaucratic, favouritism nepotism and redterpism.

Presentation

Step i:         Teacher introduces the lesson

Step ii:        Teacher reviews the previous lesson

Step iii:       Explanation of salient point

Step iv:       General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. What is public enterprise?
  2. State at least three features and three problems of  the enterprise.

Assignment

  1. What are the likely advantages and disadvantages of the public enterprise

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and give students note on the topic taught.

Lesson For The Eight Week Ending 02-03-2020

Class –                            SS I

Duration –                       40 m/p

Number of period –         4

Topic – POPULATION

Sub-topic – POPULATION LESSONS

OBJECTIVES – The  students are expected to:

  • Define population and population census
  • Explain the types of population census
  • Explain the importance of population census
  • State the problems in conducting population census.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students  are familiar  to counting  the number of people.

REFERENCES MATERIALS – chart

Content p 1 & 2

Definition – population can be defined as the total number of animals, things or people living in particular geographical area.

Population census

This is the periodic head count of people, things etc in a given country. It is usually done every 10 years. It is also called demography.

Types of population census

  1. Defacto population census:- This involves the physical head count of people.
  2. Dejure population census:– It is the head count of those present and alos those not present, that is, it is country on proxy.

Importance of census

  1. To determine the size of population
  2. It is used for future forecast
  3. It is used to determine the distribution of population base on, sex, age, occupation etc.
  4. It is used for Economic planning
  5. It is used by Government to allocate resources.
  6. It reveals the rate of immigration and emigration
  7. It is sued in the delimitation of constitution.

PROBLEM OF CONDUCTING CENSUS

  1. Illiteracy and ignorance
  2. Superstitions and beliefs
  3. Lack  of trained manpower
  4. Poor town planning
  5. Ethnical clashes
  6. Political problems

Presentation

Step 1:        Teacher reviews the previous topic

Step 2:        Introduction to the new topic

Step 3:          Explanation of salient point

Step 4:        General class discussion

Evaluation

What is (a) population (b) population census?

Period 3 & 4

Duration:-                      40 m/p

Nos of period –               2

Content –                        FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATION GROWTH

  1. Birth rate
  2. Death rate
  3. Health care facility
  4. Immigration & emigration
  5. Early or late marriages
  6. Poverty
  7. The quest for a male child

Types of population

  1. Optimum population – It is the population that is not too small or great i.e moderate population. It is the best  type of population where output  per head is the highest.
  2. Over Population – It is the population where the available resources are less than the population i.e population is greater than resources
  3. Under population:- This population is less than available resources.
Optimum
Under
over

Megram showing various type of population

Presentation:

Step i:         Teacher review the previous lesson

Step ii:        He introduces the new topic

Step iii:       Explanation of cogent points

Step iv:       General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. What is optimum population?
  2. List some factors affecting population census.

Assignment

  1. Explain the types of population
  2. List and explain at least six factors affecting the growth of population in your country.

Conclusion

The teacher summarizes the lesson and gives the students note.

Lesson Note For The Nineth Week Ending 09-03-2020

Class –                            SSI

Duration –                       40 m/p

Number of period –         4

Topic –                            POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

OBJECTIVES –                The students should be able to:

  • Identify the various types of population
  • Explain the formula for calculating population rate.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students have been introduced to population.

REFERENCES MATERIALS –  Comprehensive Economics by J.U. Anyaele

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS –  Charts

CONTENT

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ARE-  This refers to how the population of a country is divided or categorized.

TYPES OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

  1. Age Distribution of the population  of a country into various age group i.e 0-17, 2020-60 and 61 and above.

Age                population distribution

0-14               dependent  population

2020-60                    Independent population

61 & above  dependent population    

(2)       Sex Distribution of Population:- This is the division of population based on gender i.e male and female.

(3)       Occupational Distribution:-  This is the division of population based on the types of job done e.g banking, teaching, sports and entertainment etc.

(4)       Geographical Distribution:- This is the division of population based on areas people reside e.g North, West, East and South.

POPULATION CALCULATION

The population of a given area can be estimated in two ways.

  1. New Population = old population + Birth rate – death rate + immigration – Emigration.
  2. New population = old population + Natural growth rate + Net Immigration.

Where:

  • Natural growth rate = Birth rate – death rate
  • Net  immigration = Immigration – Emigration

Presentation

Step i:         The Teacher introduces the new topic

Step ii:        Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step iii:       Explanation of salient points

Step iv:       General class discussion.

Evaluation

  1. Differentiate between Age and sex population distribution.

Assignment

  • With the aid of Internet, write out the population distribution according to the 2005/2006 census in Nigeria.
  •  

Conclusion

The Teacher summarizes the lesson and gives notes to the student on the subject matter.

Lesson Note For The Tenth Week Ending 16-03-2020.

Class –                           SS I

Duration –                      40 m/p

Number of period –         4

Topic – THEORIES OF POPULATION

Objectives –    The students are expected to:

  • State the theories of population
  • State the factors or events that proved Reverend Thomas Malthus Wrong.

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students have been target about population census.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL –  Charts

REFERENCE MATERIAL – Comprehensive Economics  for SS I – 3 by Johnson Ugoji Anyaele.

CONTENT:

  1. MALTHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION:- Reverend Thomas Malthus a political economist was disturbed about the rising population in England and  he opined that, if the population is not controlled. The population would exceed food supply.

Below were his assumptions:-

  • Population was growing geometrically while food supply was growing arithmetically.
  • There should be a check on the population
  • Positive check – It includes war, pestilence, earthquake, epidemics, famine etc.
  • Preventive check – It includes celibacy, family planning, use of contraceptives, postponement of early marriages etc.

EVEN THAT PROVED MALTHUS WRONG

Through this theory is a warning to countries that have over population but however, Thomas Malthus was seen as a prophet of doom, an alarmist, an extremist by some scholars. These scholars believed that:

  1. There is international trade which can provide food for countries that lack food.
  2. There is also an improved medical facilities that can help to sustain lives.
  3. There are new found areas where people could go and reside
  4. There is also industrial revolution that has enlarged production explosion.

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY:- This theory is the newest in the theory of population. According to the theory, there are three stages of demographic transition.

  1. First stage:- The pre-industrialization:- This stage is characterized with high birth rate and high death rate. In this stage the population is static increasing and decreasing at a low rate.
  2. Second stage:- Transitional  stage:- At this stage fertility is still rising while mortality has dropped.
  3. Third stage:-  This is the final stage where both mortality and fertility have leveled down to a low level.

Presentation:

Step i:         Teacher introduces the lesson

Step ii:        Teacher revises the previous lesson

Step iii:       Explanation of cogent points

Step iv:       General class discussion

Evaluation

  1. What are the assumptions of Rev. Thomas Malthus?

Assignment

  1. Criticize Malthus theory as regard to Nigeria population.

Lesson Note For The Eleventh Week Ending 23-03-15

Class –                             SS 1

Duration –                       40 m/p

Number of period –         4

Topic – LABOUR MARKET

Objectives – The students  are expected to:

  1. Explain the concept of labour market
  2. Justify the concept of demand for labour
  3. Explain in detail the supply of labour
  4. Explain the determinant of wages

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE –  The students have been taught about the different type of labour  i.e skill, semi skilled and unskilled previously.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL – White board and marker

REFERENCE MATERIAL – Essential Economics for SS I – 3  by C.E. Andy

CONTENT P 1 & 2

DEFINITIONS – Labour Market is a place where wages and salaries and other condition of employment and determined.

DEMAND  FOR LABOUR

This refers to the total number of man power needed by an employer.

FACTORS INFLUENCING DEMAND FOR LABOUR

  1. The wage rate
  2. The size of the market
  3. Productivity of labour
  4. Intensity of production
  5. Expectation of Business condition
  6. The number of Enterprises

SUPPLY FOR LABOUR

This refers to the total number of manpower (Men or women) offered for employment over a period of time and at a given wage rate.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE OF LABOUR FORCE AND THE SUPPLY OF LABOUR IN A COUNTRY

  1. The size of the country population
  2. Death rate within the labour force
  3. Working class immigration
  4. Working class emigration
  5. School entity and leaving period (age)
  6. Official retirement age
  7. The number of disabled
  8. Working hours
  9. The number of women who are totally or completely a house wife.

Presentation:

Step i:         Teacher introduces the  lesson

Step ii:        Revises the previous related topic

Step iii:       Explanation of cogent point

Step iv:       General  class discussion.

Evaluation:

  1. Define a demand of labour and supply of labour
  2. List some factors that may likely affect the supply of labour in a country.

Period 3 and 4

Duration –                       40 m/p

Number of period –         2

Content

REASONS FOR DIFFERENCES IN REWARD FOR LABOUR

  1. Period of training
  2. Amount spent on training
  3. Trade unions
  4. Level of productivity
  5. Risk involved
  6. Societal value of the job
  7. Relationship between employee and employers
  8. Sex consideration

Presentation:

Step i:         Introduction of the lesson

Step ii:        Revision of the last lesson

Step iii:       Explanation of salient points

Step iv:       General class discussion

Evaluation:

  1. Why will a doctor be paid higher than a teacher?

Assignment

Explain any three theories of wage payment.

Conclusion

Teach, summarizes the lesson and give note to the students.

Lessonplan

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